In working on my lecture on Foucault’s 1970-71 course I have been rereading some related texts, including the “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History” essay. I know this text well, as I’ve taught it and it was a fundamental text in my PhD thesis, which was on Nietzsche, Heidegger and Foucault (and was reworked into Mapping the Present).
The final lines particularly struck me in relation to the newly available course. This is where Foucault is suggesting that the three modalities of history in Nietzsche’s second Untimely Meditation are reworked within genealogy. The key one, for me, is the third. The translation in the Aesthetics volume of the ‘Essential Works’ (itself a modification of the earlier translation in Language, Counter-Memory, Practice) reads:
The critique of the injustices of the past by a truth held by men in the present becomes the destruction of the man who maintains knowledge [connaissance] by the injustice proper to the will to knowledge.
My standard practice is to check all quotes to the original language. That reads:
La critique des injustices du passé par la vérité que l’homme détient aujourd’hui devient destruction du sujet de connaissance par l’injustice propre à la volonté de savoir.
I’m not convinced that’s very good. It is a bit clunky in the summary of the 1874 notion; but it gets downright misleading in the understanding of genealogy. Sujet is translated as man; ‘maintains’ appears for nowhere to make sense of that choice, when sujet de connaissance has a very different meaning; and propre is something of a false-friend in this context. Here’s another attempt (comments welcome).
The critique of past injustices by the truth held by man today becomes the destruction of the subject of connaisssance by the injustice specific to the will to knowledge.
The last phrase, forming both the 1970-71 course title and the title of the first volume of The History of Sexuality, is itself complicated. Depending on context it also means ‘the will to know’, and Foucault clearly means both senses to be in play.
[Update: Clare O'Farrell has kindly posted this retranslation and comments to her Foucault site]