Foucault’s Collaborative Projects

Collaborative projects

Some of Foucault’s collaborative projects are well-known – the I, Pierre Rivière collection; the Herculine Barbin memoir; Le désordre des familles with Arlette Farge; and the posthumous Technologies of the Self volume from the University of Vermont. These are either available in English, or in the process of being translated (see here).

These are the bibliographic details of other collaborative projects Foucault was involved with – either as contributor, research team leader or enabler.

1. Généalogie du capital

Scan0001Généalogie du capital: 1 Les équipements du pouvoir villes, territoires et équipements collectifs, Recherches, No 13, December 1973

  • Reissued as François Fourquet and Lion Murard, Les équipements du pouvoir, Paris: Union Générales d’Éditions 10/18, 1976
  • Foucault’s contributions, in a discussion with Fourquet and Guattari, and with Deleuze and Guattari, appear in Dits et écrits as texts 129 and 130; they are translated (in reverse order) as “Equipments of Power” in Foucault: Live, pp. 105-112.

See also Généalogie du capital 2: L’idéal historique, Recherches, No 14, January 1974

  • Reissued as François Fourquet, L’idéal historique, Paris: Union Générales d’Éditions 10/18, 1976
  • This was originally intended as a conclusion to Les équipements du pouvoir and grew to the length of a short volume on its own (130/185 pp.).

This was a project under the auspices of CERFI (Centre d’études, de recherches et de formation institutionnelles), set up by Félix Guattari. François Fourquet was the manager of the clinic at La Borde. Recherches was their house journal; the later studies sometimes appear as their book imprint Encres. Most issues of Recherches are available to buy online. On CERFI, see François Fourquet, L’accumulation du pouvoir, ou le désir d’État: CERFI, 1970-1981, Recherches, No 46, 1982; Site, No 2, 2002, http://www.sitemagazine.net/issues/2_2002; Liane Mozère, “Foucault et le CERFI : instantanés et actualité”, Le portique, No 13-14, 2002, http://leportique.revues.org/642?lang=en; and François Dosse, Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guatarri: Intersecting Lives, translated by Deborah Glassman, New York: Columbia University Press, 2010, Ch. 15. (Mozère ran the Recherches journal between 1967 and 1970.)

2. Généalogie des équipements de normalisation

gc3a9nc3a9alogie-des-c3a9quipementsGénéalogie des équipements de normalisation: Les équipements sanitaires, sous la direction de Michel Foucault, Fontenay-sous-Bois: CERFI, 1976

This volume sometimes appears listed in catalogues as Généalogie des équipements collectifs [2] Les équipements sanitaires. It comprises three parts:

  1. L’institution hospitalière au XVIIIe siècle, sous la direction de Michel Foucault (pp. 1-79)
  2. Les équipements psychiatriques au XIXe siècle, Gaëtane Lamarche-Vadel et Georges Préli (pp. 83-205)
  3. Histoire de la psychiatrie de secteur, François Fourquet and Lion Murard (pp. 209-440)

Part 3 was also issued in much longer form as Psychiatrie: le secteur impossible? Recherches, No 17, 1975 (600+ pp.) and in an abridged second edition as François Fourquet and Lion Murard, Histoire de la psychiatrie de secteur, Paris: Recherches, 1980 (338 pp.).

Part 1 is the only one directly involving Foucault. It comprises:

  • La politique de la santé au XVIIIe siècle, pp. 1-11 (Michel Foucault)
  • Chapitre I: Hôpitaux et maladies, pp. 13-24
  • Chapitre II: Le fonctionnement de l’hôpital, pp. 25-39
  • Chapitre III: L’hygiène publique ou la médicalisation de l’espace urbain, pp. 41-72
  • Chapitre IV: La ville et la santé, pp. 73-79

Only the first of these pieces is signed. No other author information is provided, except that the prefatory note to the volume as a whole notes that it was undertaken by ‘a working group gathered around Michel Foucault’.

The first chapter is reprinted in Michel Foucault, Blandine Barrett Kriegel, Anne Thalamy, François Beguin, Bruno Fortier, Les machines à guérir: Aux origins de l’hôpital moderne; dossiers et documents, Paris: L’institut de l’environnement, 1976, pp. 11-21. See next entry.

See also some additional discussion by me here.

There are two other related volumes, all funded by grant 73 01 503:

  • Généalogie des équipements collectifs [1] L’école primaire – Anne Querrien, Fontenay-sous-Bois: CERFI, 1975
  • Généalogie des équipements collectifs [3] Histoire des services collectifs dans la comptabilité nationale – François Fourquet, Fontenay-sous-Bois: CERFI, 1976

Querrien was a former doctoral student of Henri Lefebvre’s sociology programme at Nanterre, and general secretary of CERFI. This study also appeared as L’ensaignement 1. L’école primaire, Recherches no 23, 1976; and its themes are reprised as L’école mutuelle: Une pédagogie trop efficace? Paris: Empêcheurs de Penser en Rond, 2005, with a preface by Isabelle Stengers.

Fourquet’s study is related to his later Les Comptes de la puissance: histoire de la comptabilité nationale et du plan, Paris: Encres/Recherches, 1980.

There were other related studies:

  • La programmation des équipements collectifs dans les villes nouvelles (Les équipement d’Hygiene mentale), CERFI, May 1972
  • François Fourquet, Christian Hennion, Herve Maury, Liane Mozere, Anne Querrien, Lion Murart [sic], Généalogie des équipements collectifs : première synthèse, CERFI, 1973

3. Les machines à guérir: Aux origins de l’hôpital moderne

Scan0004Michel Foucault, Blandine Barret Kriegel, Anne Thalamy, François Beguin, Bruno Fortier, Les machines à guérir: Aux origins de l’hôpital moderne; dossiers et documents, Paris: L’institut de l’environnement, 1976.

This book says it derives from the CERFI funded research, but also from a separate research grant (CORDA/DGRST no 73 005 002 01, “La politique de l’espace parisien (à la fin de l’Ancien Régime)”), which was published as Bruno Fortier (ed.) La politique de l’espace parisien (à la fin de l’Ancien Régime), Paris: CORDA, 1975.

The other contributors to La politique de l’espace parisien were Blandine Barret-Kriegel, François Beguin, Daniel Friedmann, and Alain Monchablon. La politique de l’espace parisien notes that it was completed between November 1973 and November 1973, and gives a different grant number and title – 73 73 009 002 02 75 01, “L’espace Institutionnel de l’Architecture”. CORDA is Comité de la recherche et du développement en architecture; DGRST is Délégation Générale à la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique.

Contents – Les machines à guérir 1976 edition

Elements d’analyse

  • Michel Foucault, ‘La politique de la santé au XVIIIe siècle’
  • Blandine Barret-Kriegel, ‘L’hôpital comme équipement’
  • Anne Thalamy, ‘La médicalisation de l’hôpital’
  • François Beguin, ‘La machine à guérir’
  • Bruno Fortier, ‘Architecture de l’hôpital’

L’affaire des hôpitaux

  • Un essai de chronologie

Le dossier

  • Les projets
  • L’enquête
  • Les acteurs

Orientation bibliographique

Foucault’s contribution appears in Dits et écrits as text 168. It is translated by Colin Gordon as ‘The Politics of Health in the Eighteenth Century’ in Power/Knowledge and is reprinted in The Foucault Reader, Essential Works III: Power, and The Essential Foucault.

Scan0002A substantially revised version of the book appeared as Michel Foucault, Blandine Barret Kriegel, Anne Thalamy, François Beguin, Bruno Fortier, Les machines à guérir: Aux origins de l’hôpital moderne, Bruxelles: Pierre Mardaga, 1979.

Contents – Les machines à guérir 1979 edition

Elements d’analyse

  • Michel Foucault, ‘La politique de la santé au XVIIIe siècle’
  • Blandine Barret-Kriegel, ‘L’hôpital comme équipement’
  • Anne Thalamy, ‘La médicalisation de l’hôpital’
  • François Beguin, ‘La machine à guérir’
  • Bruno Fortier, ‘Le camp et la forteresse inversée’

L’affaire des hôpitaux

  • Un essai de chronologie

Le dossier

  • L’enquête
  • L’équipement
  • Les projets
  • Les acteurs

Orientation bibliographique

Foucault’s revised chapter (pp. 7-18) appears in Dits et écrits as text 257, and was translated in Foucault Studies 18 by Richard Lynch (open access here). The rest of the volume is also different from the 1976 edition – three chapters are comprehensively revised with additions and subtractions; and Fortier’s essay is entirely different, with a new title. There are also differences in the dossier and plates between the two editions.

4. Politiques de l’habitat (1800-1850)

Scan0003Politiques de l’habitat (1800-1850), étude réalisée par J.M. Alliaume, B. Barrett-Kriegel, F. Beguin, D. Ranciere, A. Thalamy, sous la direction de M. Foucault, CORDA, 1977

The title page bears the inscription ‘Collège de France, Equipe de Recherches de la Chaire d’Histoire des Systèmes de Pensée’.

A brief note says the research was conducted between September 1975 and May 1977, funded by DGRST-CORDA research contract 75.73.030.00.202.75.01, ‘Apparition de l’Habitat dans la Pensée et la Pratique Architecturale aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles”.

The only unsigned text is a short ‘Avant-propos’ (pp. 3-4), which may or may not have been written by Foucault.

The remaining chapters are:

  • Anne Thalamy, ‘Réflexions sur la notion d’habitat aux XVIII et XIXe siècles’
  • Blandine Barret-Kriegel, ‘Les demeures de la misère. Le cholera-morbus et l’émergemce de l’”Habitat”’
  • Jean-Marie Alliaume, ‘Anatomie des discours de réforme’
  • Danielle Rancière, ‘“La loi du 13 juillet 1850 sur les lodgements insalubres” Les philanthropes et le problème insoluble de l’Habitat du pauvre’
  • François Béguin, ‘Savoirs de la ville et de la maison au débat du XIXe siècle’

5. L’impossible prison

impossible prisonL’impossible prison: Recherches sur le système pénitentiare au XIXe siècle réunies par Michelle Perrot: Débat avec Michel Foucault, Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1980.

Contains three texts by Foucault – “La poussière et le nuage” (a response to a piece by Jacques Léonard); “Table ronde du 20 mai 1978” (a discussion with a range of historians); and a brief “Postface”. These appear in Dits et écrits as texts 277, 278, and 279. Only the second is available in English – translated by Colin Gordon as “Questions of Method” in The Foucault Effect, Power and The Essential Foucault; and “The Impossible Prison” in Foucault Live.

6. Génealogie de la défense sociale en Belgique (1880-1914)

TulkensFrançoise Tulkens (eds.), Génealogie de la défense sociale en Belgique (1880-1914), Bruxelles: E. Story-Scientia, 1988.

This developed from research undertaken in Foucault’s seminar at Louvain in 1981 at the time of the Wrong-Doing, Truth-Telling lectures. There is no text by Foucault in the published book Génealogie de la défense sociale en Belgique. On this seminar see Françoise Tulkens, “Contributions au séminaire «Généalogie de la défense sociale en Belgique (1880-1914)»”, CRID&P, No 5/1, 1985, pp. 1-12 and “Généalogie de la défense sociale en Belgique (1880-1914)”, Actes, No 54, 1986, pp. 38-41.

7. New Arts of Government in the Great War and Post-War Period

Eribon book photos - Berkeley2This was work planned with Foucault’s 1983 seminar at University of California, Berkeley, with the idea that the work would be continued in fall 1984 when Foucault was back in Berkeley, but due to his death in June 1984 the project did not develop.

The photograph is of Foucault with this seminar – Kotkin and Gandal are to Foucault’s right and left. For details of all the people in the photograph, see here.

Some indications of how the work might have gone can be found in Keith Gandal and Stephen Kotkin, “Governing Work & Social Life in the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.”, History of the Present, No 1, Feb 1985, pp. 4-14; and Keith Gandal’s unpublished essay “New Arts of Government in the Great War and Post-War Period”, archived at IMEC as document E.1.29/FCL2.A04-06.

The idea was that this period would be studied in relation to four countries – Foucault would do France, and Kotkin the USSR, David Horn Italy, and Keith Gandal the USA. Horn, Kotkin and Gandal all published books that developed out of their collaborative work with Foucault – respectively Social Bodies: Science, Reproduction, and Italian Modernity, Princeton University Press, 1994; Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization, University of California Press, 1995; and The Gun and the Pen: Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, and the Fiction of Mobilization, Oxford University Press, 2008.

It has taken a lot of work to gather this information – any additions or corrections would be gratefully received. Thanks to Alex Jeffrey for providing me with a photocopy of some material, to Colin Gordon for lending me a volume, and the Document Delivery Service at the University of Warwick for tracking down texts.

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34 Responses to Foucault’s Collaborative Projects

  1. Pingback: Foucault’s Collaborative Projects – a bibliography with notes | Progressive Geographies

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  8. Javier Velasquez says:

    Hi!
    I believe that you must make a link between the fifth collaboration “Génealogie de la défense sociale en Belgique (1880-1914)”. Because, is truth, there is no Foucault work in that book BUT, that’s because Foucault gave the “Mal faire, dire vrai” lectures in that context.
    And you can see that there is a reference to that in the interview that Foucault gave to Jean Francois and John De Witt, pp. 247-249 of the French version of Mal Faire. This is also commented by Brion and Harcourt in preface version of Mal faire… And once again Harcourt made a reference to this work in his annotations for La Societe Punitive.
    So… in a sense Mail Faire… plus Tulkens book made a whole collaborative work.
    What is kind of interesting is that in a wider sense this Belgian Lectures seems to be a cross road for Foucault works. The mal faire dire vrai lectures seems to close the circle that Foucault open with the Leçons sur la volonté de savoir and A verdade e as formas juridicas on one hand, La societe Punitive, Surveiller et Punir on the other.
    But also there is an strong relationship between Tulkens, and the seminar, with the publication of a Dangerosite et Justice Penale, another seminar that occurred a few months to Foucault Lectures. The book was published in 1981, and of course this was the same year that Foucault published, for first time in French, his work L’évolution de la notion d’individu dangereux dans la psychiatrie.

  9. Javier Velasquez says:

    Ah… a last thing… I am not sure that the concept of Dangerousness were a particularly topic that Foucault find interesting, nevertheless there is a quite relationship between the concept and the Robert Castel work (De la dangerosité au risque published in 1983) and Francois Ewald (L Etat providence, published in 1985).

    Since Dangerousness was a hot topic in the early 80s, I guess that the different interactions with the criminologist of the University of Louvain has a lot to do with that.

  10. stuartelden says:

    Thanks for the comments Javier. Yes, as the bibliography says, the last project in its published form contains no text from Foucault, but it developed from the seminar he ran in 1981 in Louvain.
    The bibliography would be much bigger if it contained works inspired by Foucault, or even just works by people Foucault worked with in his seminars. Ewald, Donzelot, Castel, Blandine Barrett Kriegel, etc. This bibliography is merely of projects where Foucault had a direct involvement.
    I didn’t know about Dangerosite et Justice Penale – so, thank you. I will check that out.
    To clarify two points – Foucault gave the ‘dangerous individual’ lecture for the first time in 1977, in Toronto, and it links back at least as far as the 1975 Abnormals lectures; and Castel’s book is entitled La gestion des risques. There is an article of the title you mention, but the book I think has a different title.
    Thanks again.

  11. Javier Velasquez says:

    Hi Stuart,

    Well precisely, If I understand correctly the seminar that Foucault gave in Lovain were the “Mal Faire, dire vrai” lectures, and in that context emerges this seminar that Tulkens published. For me both works are quite connected.

    My allusions to the ‘dangerous individual’ work, we discussed this before, is for the following question: Why did Foucault published this work in French exactly in 1981? On one hand, you are correct, Castel published “Le gestion des risqué” that year, source of the 1983 work “Dangerousness as risk”. But it’s that the only reason?

    You see, Foucault deal with the idea of “Dangerousness” but, I argue that the concept itself were not a main topic for him, but it was a hot topic in the criminology world during the late 70s and early 80s. So, for Foucault himself publishing the lecture weren’t a priority, but he did finally in 1981, the same year he directed the Louvain seminary’s, and the gave the “Mal Faire, dire Vrai” lectures.

    As a matter of fact I think that his connection is quite explicit in the last lecture of 20 of May 1981 (pp 222-228 – French edition). So, what I mean is that yes, Foucault worked the concept of dangerousness, at least since the early 70. But by the late 70s it wasn’t a main topic for him, but it was a main topic for his colleagues (Castel and Ewald) and in a broader sense it was a political hot topic.

    The appearance of Foucault in Louvain is a quite political act, he went there to support this left wing criminologist. What its more interesting is that, as I told you, before the Louvain Lectures, the same group of Criminologist gave a colloquy about dangerousness, published in 1981 as: Dangerosité et justice pénale. Ambiguïté d’une pratique, Genève, Médecine et Hygiène, 1981. This book was directed by Christian Debuyst with the help of Francois Tulkens.
    Even more “coincidences”, the issue of “Deviance et societe” where the Foucault work was published is an special issue that discussed the idea of Dangerousness “Débat : Le dompteur face à la dangerosité: with texts by T.W. Harding, Saleem A. Shah, Jean Poupart , Michèle Lalonde , Jean Dozois and the Foucault text. I don’t know who edited that journal in that time but… “Deviance…” was published by the same publisher that published Debuyst work: Médecine et Hygiène. Also, Hardig, who seems to be the one behind the idea of this debat, published in 1980 a text about the same topic.

    So, may be all this are only coincidences, or there is a connection between them. I think that you are correct, I am not sure that we can talk as a collaborative work in a strict sense. But, on the other hand, the time and moment that his events occur and were published are quite meaningful and seems to have a coordinate cause. So, we can’t speak about a academically collaborative work, but we can speak of a political collaborative actions within the academy.

    (By the way, I mean that Dangerousness was a hot topic, because you can find analogue discussion regarding the legal and psychiatric uses in other jurisdictions and the same moment)

  12. Javier Velasquez says:

    Oh! and a last thing, the Brion and Harcourt preface of “mail faire” seems to support my theory.

  13. Javier Velasquez says:

    Post.Scriptum… The Genealogie… book that Tulkens published in 1988 contains an excerpt of Ewald “L’ etat providence”. This excerpt cover “Reponsability and dangerousness”. I cannot avoid to wonder if this was the topic that Ewald worked back in 1981. I think that you can see Ewald influence on the last Lecture, when Foucault begin to speak about the civil responsability.

    (Sorry for the digression)

  14. stuartelden says:

    I am sure you are correct that the connections are important. Ewald, Castel, Tulkens etc. – this is under-researched, at least in English. I don’t know all the connections about dangerousness, but I’m grateful for your indications of the links. I’ve ordered a copy of Dangerosité et justice pénale. I read the Tulkens’ Genealogie book a decade ago, and it’s hard to get hold of a copy. Worldcat.org only lists a few copies – http://www.worldcat.org/title/genealogie-de-la-defense-sociale-en-belgique-1880-1914-travaux-du-seminaire-qui-sest-tenu-a-luniversite-catholique-de-louvain-sous-la-direction-de-michel-foucault/oclc/311290078&referer=brief_results I’d like to take another look.

    Just to clarify: Mal faire, dire vrai was the lecture course – there was a separate seminar with Tulkens which had the title of the 1988 book. Whether Foucault presented material or just responded to others’ work is unclear. There were, of course, connections between the material in the lectures and the seminar, as there often were at the College de France.

    I assume you know this piece – https://www.uclouvain.be/cps/ucl/doc/dh/documents/20100316090710760(1).pdf

    Thanks again.

  15. Javier Velasquez says:

    Hi Stuart,

    I get my copy of the Tulkens book via abebooks. fr. I bought to a Belgian legal bookstore called Juridica (Avenue de l’Artisanat, 8b.Braine l’Alleud, B, Belgium 1420) But I don’t see any more copies of the book available on-line.

    Nevertheless, the PDF document that you copy me is almost exactly (it has certain differences) with the first Tulkens work that appears on the book.

    And yes, I understand what you say between the “connection” of the lecture and the seminar. I think that I misunderstood what you wanted to means by “collaborative work”. Sorry for that. I was thinking in a more broader sense.

    Well, right now I am writing an alternative genealogy of the dangerousness (Alternative because, I follow a similar path that was describe by Digniffe in her article “Genalogie du concept de dangerosite” published on Folie et Justice: reliire foucault (2009). But I have move back and forward the original Foucaultian position in this matter. )

    Anyway, thanks for your time and your blog.

    J.

    • stuartelden says:

      Thanks – yes, I check abebooks fairly regularly for this and a few other pieces that I need. Copies do turn up of obscure things now and again. Your project sounds fascinating – good luck with it and do let me know if you publish results.

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